The Hanseatic League




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Year Event Source
804 First mention of town of Schleswig in public records. Lonely Planet, 873.
845 Bremen becomes an Archbishopric. Westholm, 36.
860 Iceland discovered by Norwegian Vikings. Kinder, 131.
915 Hungarian (Magyar) raiding in north-western Germany. Kinder, 168.
948 Bishoprics of Ripen (Ribe), Aarus, and Schleswig established. Kinder, 163.
982 Greenland discovered by Norwegian Vikings. Kinder, 131.
983 Great uprising of the Slavs leads to the German loss of many areas east of the Elbe river. Kinder, 143.
1000 Archbishopric founded at Gnesen (Gniezno) in Poland. Kinder, 143.
1008 Olaf Skutkonung becomes first Swedish ruler to be baptized. Kinder, 163.
1023 City wall of Magedeburg completed. Dollinger, 14.
1054 Russia, unified under Kiev since 882, dissolves into principalities, including Novgorod. Kinder, 133.
1074 Revolt of citizens of Cologne against the Archbishop of Cologne. Dollinger, 14.
1075 Bergen created a market town by King Olav Kyrre of Norway. Gade, 24.
1104 Creation of the Archbishopric at Lund. Dollinger, 6.
1120 Record of Norwegian vessels calling at Utrecht and being admitted without customs dues. Gade, 7.
1124 Otto s mission to the Slavs of Pomerania. Dollinger, 11.
1127 Otto s second mission to the Slavs of Pomerania. Dollinger, 11.
1130 Cologne merchants granted the right to reside in London, a right (at that time) denied to merchants from Tiel and Bremen. Dollinger, 6.
1131 Construction begins on Johanniskirche in Magdeburg. Lonely Planet, 334.
1134 Cathederal of St. Peter erected in Schleswig. Lonely Planet, 874.
1138 Pirates from Rugen Island sack and raze Old Lubeck. Gade, 12.
1143 Count Adolphus of Schauenburg and Holstein founds Lubeck six miles up the river from the site of Old Lubeck. Gade, 12.
1151 Stendal receives its municipal charter. Westholm, 74.
1155 Norway sends ambassador to England. Gade, 5.
1157 Fire destroys Lubeck. Gade, 14.
1157 Men of Cologne granted privileges at London. Cave, 221.
1158 Norway sends ambassador to England. Gade, 5.
1158 Henry the Lion founds the third Lubeck. Gade, 14.
1160 Population estimate of Stettin in 1160: 5,000. Dollinger, 17.
1160 Bishopric of Oldenburg transfered to Lubeck. Dollinger, 21.
1160 Henry the Lion conquers Mecklenburg, making the Polish princes his vassals. Lonely Planet, 383.
1160 Town of Schwerin established. Lonely Planet, 395.
1161 Peace between early Gotlanders and the Germans as well as grants of privilege to the Gotlanders in German towns. Dollinger, 24.
1161 First mention of Rostock as an early Danish settlement. Lonely Planet, 384.
1163 Norway sends ambassador to England. Gade, 5.
1163 Germans promulgate self-governing laws for their colony at Visby. Gade, 11.
1164 Meeting of bishops at Bergen demands right to select the Norwegian king. Kinder, 163.
1168 Rugen Island, previously Slavic, conquered by Denmark. Kinder, 163.
1170 Bishopric of Bergen established. Gade, 27-28.
1173 First grant of privilege to Lubeck merchants in Sweden. Schildhauer, 36.
1173 Henry the Lion lays the first stone for the town s Cathederal. Lonely Planet, 868.
1175 Cologne merchants gain right to trade freely throughout all of England. Dollinger, 39.
1176 Men of Cologne granted freedom from wreck in England. Cave, 223.
1180 Muhlhausen receives it municipal charter. Westholm, 50.
1180 Trial of Henry the Lion (1178-1180) by imperian court concludes with him being stripped of his lands and titles. Kinder, 165.
1184 Pomerania, previously Slavic, is conquered by Denmark. Kinder, 163.
1185 Magdeburg receives municipal charter. Westholm, 70.
1186 King Sverre of Norway gives a speech inviting the English to trade, but complaining about the greedy German traders, though they too were still invited. Gade, 31.
1186 Imported German wine leads to civil disruptions in Bergen, causing King Sverris of Norway to reject German trade. Oye, 11.
1189 Treaty grants (reciprocal) privileges to Gotland and Novgorod and Germans. Dollinger, 26.
1189 Bremen receives municipal rights. Westholm, 36.
1189 Hamburg receives municipal rights and exemption from Elbe tolls. Lonely Planet, 831.
1194 Richard the Lionheart of England grants Cologne merchants the right to travel throughout England. Schildhauer, 17.
1199 A Cistercian monastery existed in Greifswald. Lonely Planet, 408.
1200 Estimates place population of Bergen at 5,000. Gade, 25.
1201 Denmark conquers Lubeck. Gade, 14.
1201 Founding of the city of Riga. Dollinger, xi.
1203 Lubeck merchants granted market privileges for Skanor and Falsterbo by the Danish crown. Cave, 223-224.
1209 Stade receives its municipal charter. Westholm, 58.
1209 Construction begins on Magdeburg s Cathederal. Lonely Planet, 335.
1210 Gottingen receives municipal charter. Westholm, 68.
1214 German territories east of the Elbe river ceded by Frederick II to Waldemar II of Denmark. Kinder, 173
1216 Town council created in Cologne. Dollinger, 14.
1217 King Henry III of England letter/treaty with Norwegians for open trade and commerce between the two countries. Gade, 6.
1218 Rostock receives its municipal charter. Westholm, 73.
1219 Danish forces occupy Estonia and Christianize the area. Westholm, 116.
1223 Lubeck town seal first cut. Lloyd,
1224 Records of ships bringing grain and malt to Lynn from Groningen and Stavoren. Gade, 8
1224 City of Dorpat founded and made a Bishopric. Dollinger, 28.
1225 Treaty between Denmark and Lubeck allows for Lubeckers to buy and sell at South Swedish markets. Gade, 15.
1225 Lubeck merchants granted expanded market privileges for Skanor and Falsterbo by the Danish crown. Cave, 223-224.
1225 Construction begins on Gustrow s cathederal. Lonely Planet, 400.
1226 Lubeck regains its independence from Denmark and gains status as a free imperial city by Frederick II. Gade, 14.
1226 Frankfurt/Oder founded. Westholm, 68.
1226 Construction begins of Marienkirche at Lubeck. Lonely Planet, 868.
1226 Golden Bull of Rimini instructs Teutonic Knights to conquer heathen Prussia. Kinder, 173.
1227 Hanse victory over Denmark at Bornhoved. Dollinger, xi.
1227 Braunschweig given municipal rights. Westholm, 35.
1229 Commercial treaty of trade privileges granted to German merchants by the Prince of Smolensk. d Haenens, 184.
1229 Extensive trade privileges and treaty granted to German merchants at Novgorod. Cave, 226-231.
1230 Kampen joins the Hanse. Westholm, 81.
1230 Legal codes of Hamburg and Lubeck aligned. Thatcher, 609-610.
1230 Construction begins on Lubeck town hall (Rathaus). Lonely Planet, 867.
1231 Pre-Hanse Riga under the Teutonic Knights grants a house to the merchants of Lubeck. Cave, 232.
1233 Thorn receives it municipal charter. Westholm, 130.
1234 City of Stralsund founded. Dollinger, 32.
1234 Stralsund receives municipal charter. Westholm, 59.
1237 Henry III of England exempts men of Gotland from all customs dues in English ports. Dollinger, 39.
1238 Danzig founded and probably granted Lubeck law. Dollinger, 32.
1239 Perleberg receives it municipal charter. Westholm, 53.
1241 Hamburg and Lubeck agree to protect the roads between them from bandits, etc. Gade, 13.
1241 Wesel receives its municipal charters. Westholm, 75.
1241 Mutual protection pact between Hamburg and Lubeck. Cave, 233.
1242 Lubeck and German Baltic territories jointly agree to safeguard their surrounding lands. Gade, 15.
1243 Stettin adopts Magdeburg law. Dollinger, 32.
1245 Bishopric of Riga raised to an Archbishopric. Dollinger, 28.
1245 Lemgo receives municipal charter. Westholm, 46.
1246 Germany s first hospital, the Hospital of the Holy Ghost, is established in Lubeck. Lonely Planet, 869.
1247 Lubeck pirates attacked Norwegian merchants who were heading for Visby and Scania. In response, King Haakon Haakonsson siezed German ships in Bergen. Gade, 32.
1248 King Haakon Haakonsson writes to Lubeck Council demanding reparations for a Lubeck pirate attack on Norwegian merchants in 1247. Gade, 34.
1248 Haakon IV of Norway writes a letter to Lubeck begging for grain shipments to avert a famine. Dollinger, 38.
1248 Lubeck fleet sacks Copenhagen. Westholm, 103.
1248 Town of Neubrandenburg founded. Lonely Planet, 401.
1249 Stralsund sacked by a Lubeck fleet. Dollinger, 46.
1250 King Haakon Haakonsson sends two letters to Lubeck Council asking for ships to come and deliver needed goods. Gade, 9.
1250 King Haakon IV concludes treaty with Lubeck Council which became the basis for German dominance of Norwegian trade. Gade, 9.
1250 Norway-Lubeck treaty ends diplomatic conflict. Gade, 35.
1250 Founding of the city of Stockholm. Dollinger, xi.
1250 Greifswald receives municipal chater. Westholm, 68.
1251 Renewal and extension of Lubeck s privileges in Sweden. Schildhauer, 36.
1252 Privileges granted to Hanse in Flanders. Dollinger, xi.
1252 Northeim receives its municipal charter. Westholm, 72.
1253 Frankfurt/Oder receives municipal charter. Westholm, 68.
1254 League of the Renish Towns formed in west-central Germany. Schildhauer, 39.
1255 Warendorf joins the Hanse. Westholm, 63.
1255 Hamburg and Lubeck align their coinage to a single standard. Cave, 146.
1256 Reconciliation between Lubeck and Stralsund arranged by Wismar. Dollinger, 46.
1257 Town charter granted to Germans (but not Poles) of Krakow. Dollinger, 31.
1259 Treaty joins Lubeck and Baltic/Wendish towns to work together in matters of trade and security, sharing privileges, etc. Gade, 16.
1259 Stralsund, Lubeck, Wismar agree to combat piracy together. Dollinger, 46.
1259 Germans receive a house at Novgorod rather than have to continue to share the Gotland house. Westholm, 13.
1259 Wendish town traders starting to take up winter residence in Bergen. Oye, 16.
1260 Braunschweig joins the Hanse. Westholm, 35.
1260 Construction started on Neubrandenburg s Johanniskirche. Lonely Planet, 401.
1261 Trading privileges granted to men of Hamburg and Lubeck by Swedish king. Westholm, 16.
1261 Privileges of 1251 granted to Lubeck in Sweden now extended to Hamburg. Schildhauer, 36.
1263 Salzwedel joins the Hanse. Westholm, 56.
1264 Mutual defense alliance between Lubeck, Rostock, and Wismar. Schildhauer, 40.
1266 Merchants of Hamburg granted right in England to form a trading association. Dollinger, 39.
1267 Merchants of Lubeck granted right in England to form a trading association. Dollinger, 39.
1267 Second Crusade to the Prussian lands. Kinder, 168.
1270 Hamburg establishes a municipal register of debts. Dollinger, 164.
1270 Uelzen joins the Hanse. Westholm, 74.
1270 Queen Margaret II of Denmark establishes a convent at Rostock. Lonely Planet, 386.
1270 Construction completed on Nikolaikirche in Stralsund. Lonely Planet, 406.
1275 Bremen excluded from Hanse for refusing to participate in the blockade of Norway. Dollinger, 66.
1275 Tangermunde receives municipal charter. Westholm, 60.
1275 Magdeburg joins the Hanse. Westholm, 70.
1276 King Magnus Lagaboter of Norway promulgates new civil and criminal laws. Gade, 26-27.
1276 Lubeck sends two councillors to Norway to advocate for the Germans; King Magnus IV of Norway grants them a letter of privilege giving them a better position than the natives. Gade, 38.
1276 The Urban Code places foreigners on the same footing as natives as regards rights and duties in Norway. Oye, 16.
1278 Greifswald joins the Hanse. Westholm, 68-69.
1280 Transfer of Kontor from Bruges to Aardenburg. Dollinger, xi.
1282 Kontor returns to Bruges from Aardenburg. Dollinger, xi.
1282 Riga joins the Hanse in a compact with Visby and Lubeck. Westholm, 119.
1282 Merchant associations in London of men of Cologne, Lubeck, and Hamburg merge into a single organization. Schildhauer, 38.
1282 Danish Magna Carta requires Danish king to convoke Danehof council to consult on legislation. Kinder, 163.
1283 Anklam joins the Hanse. Westholm, 65.
1283 Demmin joins the Hanse. Westholm, 67.
1284 Alf Erlingson, a Norwegian nobleman turned pirate, captured some German ships. In retaliation the German cities closed their ports to Norwegians and refused to allow export to Norway. Gade, 41.
1284 Flensburg granted municipal rights (i.e. township). Lonely Planet, 876.
1284 Marienkirche in Flensburg completed. Lonely Planet, 878.
1285 Norwegian king offers Germans renewal of their privileges, resulting in the Kalmar Treaty: Norway must return all seized ships, pay a large indemnity, and renew Hanse privileges. Gade, 41-42.
1285 Reval joins the Hanse. Westholm, 116.
1286 Riga establishes a municipal register of debts. Dollinger, 164.
1287 Buxtehude receives its municipal chater and city wall. Westholm, 38.
1288 Stralsund establishes a municipal register of debts. Dollinger, 164.
1290 Slavic language abolished in courts in Magdeburg. Dollinger, 131.
1290 Luneberg establishes a municipal register of debts. Dollinger, 164.
1290 Rostock s Marienkirche is completed. Lonely Planet, 385.
1293 Control of Novgorod Kontor passes from Visby to Lubeck. Dollinger, xii.
1294 Indemnity from 1294 so onerous that Norway had to conclude another treaty ceeding even more privileges to the Germans. Gade, 42.
1294 Paderborn joins the Hanse. Westholm, 72.
1295 King Eirik of Norway promulgates laws banning any union of foreign merchants or any internal laws of foreign merchants. Gade, 29.
1295 Novgorod Kontor bans all credit transactions. Dollinger, 205.
1295 Minden joins the Hanse. Westholm, 71.
1298 Agreement of the towns eliminates seal of the Gotland Community as a legal act. Dollinger, 44.
1299 All trading in Norway restricted to specific trading towns. Gade, 29.
1299 Edward I of England borrows 500 marks sterling from three merchants from Lubeck, Cologne, and Dortmund. Dollinger, 57.
1300 Population estimate for Lubeck: 15,000.
Population estimate for Hamburg: 5,000.
Population estimate for Danzig: 2000.
Dollinger, 117, 126.
1300 Construction started on Friedlander Gate of Neubrandenburg s town wall. Lonely Planet, 401.
1301 Germans taken to task in Bergen for exceeding their privileges by, e.g. trading beyond the city and non-payment of dues. Gade, 46.
1301 Ten leading guildsmen burned alive after uprising in Magdeburg. Dollinger, 138.
1302 Germans forbidden, again, to trade north of Bergen. Gade, 46.
1303 King Edward I of England issued the Charta mercatoria. Gade, 19.
1305 Krakow becomes the seat of the Polish kings. Westholm, 128.
1306 German artisans attempt to stop paying tithes in Bergen. Gade, 46.
1307 Hanse receives its charter from the Count and City of Bruges. Gade, 20.
1307 Transfer of Kontor from Bruges to Aardenburg. Dollinger, xii.
1309 Kontor returns to Bruges from Aardenburg. Dollinger, xii.
1309 Teutonic Knights establish headquarters at Marienburg. Dollinger, 55.
1311 King Edward II of England confirms Hanse s privileges. Gade, 19.
1311 Norwegian court rules against German artisans who had stopped paying tithes in 1306. Gade, 46.
1311 Wismar capitulates after months of siege when she was aided by Rostock and Stralsund to the Duke of Mecklenburg. Dollinger, 53.
1311 German winter residents in Bergen organize trade boycott of local clergy. Oye, 20.
1313 English establish a wool staple at Bruges. Schildhauer, 42.
1315 Famine in Norway, 1315-1316. Gade, 46.
1315 Privileges granted to Hanse merchants in Antwerp. Dollinger, 315.
1316 Recklinghausen joins the Hanse. Westholm, 73.
1316 Norway declares that dried fish could only be exported in exchange for grain, flour, and other heavy goods. Schildhauer, 36.
1317 King Edward II of England expands Hanse s privileges. Gade, 19.
1317 Edward II of England borrows a sum of money from a Dortmund merchant family. Dollinger, 57.
1320 Merchants of Visby issue maritime code. Gade, 11.
1323 Slavs excluded from drapers guild in Brunswick. Dollinger, 132.
1329 Lubeck purchases Travemunde for 1060 marks to control Lubeck s river traffic to the Baltic. Lonely Planet, 872.
1329 Hamburg begins holding annual Hamburg Dom fair. Lonely Planet, 844.
1330 King Magus of Norway rented his place in Vaagsbotn to the shoemakers. Gade, 31.
1330 Magdeburg patrician families lose power to guilds. Dollinger, 138.
1332 Hundreds of Germans, many merchants among them, killed in Scania by Danish malcontents. Dollinger, 54.
1338 Charter which had been issued in 1309 at Bruges is confirmed. Dollinger, 51.
1339 Confirmation of Hanse privileges in England. Gade, 19-20.
1339 Crown jewels of England pawned to Cologne merchant. Gade, 20.
1340 Tension between Germans and Norwegians leads to rioting. Gade, 47.
1340 Konigsberg joins the Hanse. Westholm, 115.
1340 Waldemar becomes king of Denmark. Bjork, 449.
1341 Tension between Germans and Norwegians leads to rioting. Gade, 47.
1342 Confirmation of Hanse privileges in England. Gade, 19-20.
1342 King Magnus Eirikson orderes German out of Bergen. Gade, 47.
1343 Germans return to Bergen after being ordered out in 1342. Privileges restored to 1294 level. Gade, 47, 51.
1343 Danzig adopts Kulm law, derived from the Magdeburg law. Dollinger, 32-33.
1344 Confirmation of Hanse privileges in England. Gade, 19-20.
1344 Crown jewels of England returned by Cologne merchant to whom they were pawned in 1339. Gade, 20.
1345 Confirmation of Hanse privileges in England. Gade, 19-20.
1345 Ordinance laid down that municipal administration in Sweden must be half-Swede, half-German. Dollinger, 36.
1345 Reval sold to Teutonic Knights by Denmark. Westholm, 116.
1345 Narva receives its municipal charter under the Lubeck law. Westholm, 118.
1345 King Magnus Eriksson of Sweden declares that no more than half the seats on any Swedish town council should be held by non-Swedes. Schildhauer, 37.
1346 Visby and Lubeck begin jointly appointing the priest for the church at the Novgorod Kontor. Dollinger, 100.
1346 Estonia acquired by Teutonic Knights from Denmark. Kinder, 199.
1347 Bruges Kontor draws up its constitution. Dollinger, 51.
1347 Edward III of England raises export duty on English cloth, which the Hanse merchants refused to pay. Dollinger, 189.
1347 The Black Death is most active in Greece, Southern Italy, and the Western Balkans. Kinder, 154.
1348 Dukes of Mecklenburg become princes of the Holy Roman Empire. Lonely Planet, 383.
1348 The Black Death is most active in France and Northern Italy. Kinder, 154.
1349 Black Death reaches Norway through English vessels. Gade, 87.
1349 First case of Black Death in Bergen, 1349-1350. Oye, 20.
1349 The Black Death is most active in Spain, England, and Southern and Western Germany. Kinder, 154.
1350 English Merchant Adventurers begin visiting Elbing, Danzig, and Stralsund. Dollinger, 73.
1350 Luneburg grocers exclude Slavs from their guild. Dollinger, 132.
1350 Lubeck Marienkirche completed. Lonely Planet, 868.
1350 The Black Death is most active in the Hanseatic regions of Germany, Scandinavia, Livonia, and Russia. Kinder, 154.
1351 Gottingen joins the Hanse. Westholm, 68.
1352 Norwegian king complains of the behavior of German merchants in Bergen. Gade, 85.
1356 Hansetag confirms constitution of Bruges Kontor and sends embassy to Bruges. Dollinger, 63.
1356 Second outbreak of the Black Death in Bergen. Oye, 20.
1356 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1358 Average size of a Hanse vessel was sixty last. One-hundred last vessels carried 20 men. Gade, 64.
1358 Hanse embargo against Flanders, 1358-1360. Dollinger, xii.
1358 Bremen requests readmission to the Hanse (having been excluded in 1275) and it readmitted. Dollinger, 66.
1358 Embargo against Flanders in effect. Dollinger, 76.
1358 Bremen joins the Hanse. Westholm, 36.
1358 Gardelegen joins the Hanse. Westholm, 68.
1358 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1359 Harvest in the Low Countries especially poor. Dollinger, 66.
1359 Stendal joins the Hanse. Westholm, 74.
1360 Hanse closes the Danish Straits to prevent Prussian smugglers from carrying grain to the Low Countries. Dollinger, 66.
1360 Denmark recovers Scania from Sweden. Dollinger, 67.
1360 Bruges Kontor bans commercial partnerships between Hanseatics and Flemings. Dollinger, 200.
1360 Stettin joins the Hanse. Westholm, 134.
1360 King Waldemar of Denmark makes speech in which he declares his wish to add other lands to the Danish kingdom. Bjork, 449
1361 Novgorod Kontor obligated to refer important decisions to the home cities. Gade, 72.
1361 Hansetag in Stralsund send letter to Bergen Kontor pleading with them to moderate their behavior with regard to the Norwegians. Gade, 91.
1361 Embassy informs Novgorod Kontor that no internal regulations are to be issued without the consent of Lubeck, Visby, and the three Livonian towns. Dollinger, 64.
1361 Danzig begins attending Hansetag meetings. Westholm, 126.
1361 Hansetag held at Greifswald.
1361 Denmark conquers Oland. Bjork, 450.
1362 Severe storm carves out inland harbor at Husum, facilitating direct access to the North Sea.
1363 King Edward III of England renews Charta mercatoria. Gade, 71.
1363 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1363 Construction completed of Magdeburg s Cathederal. Lonely Planet, 335.
1363 King Waldemar of Denmark s only son dies. Bjork, 470.
1364 Warburg joins the Hanse. Westholm, 62.
1365 Novgorod Kontor requests confirmation of some drafted regulations by the Kontor from Lubeck. Dollinger, 64.
1365 King Waldemar of Denmark confirms Hanseatic privileges in Danish lands. Bjork, 452.
1366 Hansetag Lubeck declares that only citizens of Hanse towns could enjoy privileges of the Hanse. Dollinger, 85.
1366 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1366 King Waldemar of Denmark negotiates with the Duke of Mecklenburg to make further acquisitions in southern Sweden. Bjork, 452.
1367 Only Hansetag ever held in Cologne forms Confederation of Cologne to combat Danish. Dollinger, 69.
1367 Hildesheim joins the Hanse. Westholm, 70.
1367 Hansetag Stralsund requests that Bergen Kontor tone down its excesses to improve Hanse-Norwegian relations. Gade, 91.
1367 Hansetag held at Cologne.
1368 During 1368-1369, 120,000 herring were salted in Scania. Gade, 16.
1368 Norway sides with Denmark against the Hanse, and the Hanse withdraws all its merchants from Bergen, Oslo, and Tonsberg. Gade, 90.
1368 Dutch attack Norwegian coastline in alliance with the Hanse cities. Gade, 92.
1368 Einbeck joins the Hanse. Westholm, 40
1368 Frankfurt/Oder joins the Hanse. Westholm, 68.
1368 Lubeck sacks Copenhagen. Westholm, 103.
1368 Gollnow, near Stettin, joins the Hanse. Westholm, 133.
1368 Hansetag held at Stralsund and at Lubeck.
1368 Duke of Mecklenburg, the Counts of Holstein, and some Jutland lords meet with Hanse in Wismar to agree on the dismemberment of Denmark. Bjork, 456.
1368 Hanse letter to the Pope explains the towns position against Denmark and asks for his prayers. Bjork, 457.
1369 Lubeck and other towns as well as Prussian and Livonian towns met to set down rules for the Bergen Kontor. Gade, 68.
1369 Norway sues for peace after a Hanse fleet sacks and burns down Bergen. Gade, 91.
1369 Danish fortress of Halsingborg in Scania capitulates to German-Dutch forces and Denmark sues for peace. Dollinger, 70.
1369 Buxtehude joins the Hanse. Westholm, 38.
1369 Hansetag held at Stralsund, at Lubeck, and at Wolgast.
1370 Peace of Stralsund inposes humiliating terms on the king of Denmak after the Hanse sink a Danish fleet, capture Copenhagen, and the fortresses in the Sound. Gade, 91-92.
1370 Revolt by guilds against the leadership of Cologne brutally repressed. Dollinger, 139.
1370 Hansetag held at Stralsund.
1370 Teutonic Knights defeat Lithuanians at Rudau. Kinder, 199.
1371 Hansetag held at Stralsund.
1372 Lubeck statutes strictly forbid the precense of women within the Bergen Kontor. Gade, 79.
1372 Peace following Peace of Stralsund finally signed with Norway by the Hanse. Gade, 92.
1373 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1373 Duke of Mecklenburg reaches agreement with Emperor of HRE to support Emperor in Brandenburg and Mecklenburg s claims in Sweden and Denmark. Bjork, 472.
1374 London Kontor appeals to the towns for aid against the English, whom it claims are infringing on the Kontor s privileges. Dollinger, 64.
1374 Uelzen joins the Hanse. Westholm, 74.
1374 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1375 Hanse excercises its right under the Treaty of Stralsund and selects family with Norwegian ties to succeed King Waldemar IV of Denmark to that throne. Dollinger, 71.
1375 Brunswick excluded from Hanse. Dollinger, 90.
1375 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1375 English merchants address petition to the English King to complain of unfair treatment by Hanseatic merchants. Postan, 106.
1375 Hanseatic delegation travels to London to attempt to obtain exemption for Hanseatic merchants from tunnage and poundage fees. Postan, 106.
1376 Final Hanse-Norwegian peace treaty of Kallundborg cements Hanse dominance in Norway. Gade, 92.
1376 Hansetag held at Stralsund and at Korsor in Norway.
1377 King Haakon VI of Norway decrees that Lubeck and Stralsund merchants must accept Norwegian coins at full face value. Gade, 62.
1377 In protest of infringments on its privileges, Bruges Kontor secretly instructs all its merchants to leave the city, an edict it issued without consulting the Hanse. Dollinger, 75.
1377 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1378 Braunschweig excluded from the Hanse. Westholm, 35.
1378 Hansetag held at Stralsund
1379 First occasion when Dortmund sent a delegate to a Hansetag. Dollinger, 122.
1379 Wendish and Pomeranian towns adopt to Lubeck-Hamburg coinage, which as a result of proponderant Hanseatic influence then extended to most of Scandinavia. Dollinger, 207-208.
1379 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1380 Denmark and Norway are joined as one country. Gade, 96.
1380 Town of Arnhem applies for membership in the Hanse, which was granted in 1441. Dollinger, 89.
1380 Butchers rising in Lubeck. Dollinger, 286.
1380 Braunschweig readmitted to the Hanse. Westholm, 35.
1380 Hansetag held at Lubeck and at Wismar.
1380 Hanseatic privileges in England restored. Postan, 107.
1381 Hansetag lays down specific instructions of how to resolve intra-Hanse disputes internally. Dollinger, 108.
1381 Wendish towns address demand to Prussia that English traders should be allowed and tolerated in Prussia. Postan, 107.
1381 Construction begins on Nikolaikiche in Wismar. Lonely Planet, 392.
1382 Hansetag held at Stralsund.
1383 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1384 Hansetag held at Stralsund and at Falsterbo in Scania.
1385 Confederation of Cologne, established in 1367, lapses. Dollinger, 69.
1385 Control of Danish fortresses handed back to Denmark after 15+ years under control of German forces from the Confederation of Cologne. Dollinger, 72.
1385 English fleets attacks German ships in the Zwijn, including six Prussian vessels, leading the Teutonic Knights to break off relations between Prussia and England. Dollinger, 74.
1385 Hansetag held at Stralsund and at Lubeck.
1386 Personal union between Poland and Lithuania. Dollinger, 284.
1386 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1387 Halberstadt joins the Hanse. Westholm, 69.
1388 Hanse trade broken off with England, Novgorod, Flanders. Dollinger, xii.
1388 Embargoes in operation against all of England, Novgorod, and Flanders. Dollinger, 72.
1388 Wendish towns sieze English good housed in the warehouses in Stralsund. Dollinger, 74.
1388 At Lubeck s urging, a blockade of Flanders (including confiscation of Flemish goods) was decided at the Hansetag on the first of May. Dollinger, 76.
1388 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1388 Eventual agreement with England reaffirms all Hanseatic privileges there and English rights in Prussia. Postan, 108.
1389 Queen Margaret of Denmark and Norway conquers all Sweden save Stockholm (which was supplied by the Vitalin Brothers). Gade, 97.
1389 Visby (of the Vitalin Brothers) sacked by the Teutonic Knights. Gade, 98.
1392 Johann Niebur negotiates an end to the embargo (of 1388) that the Hanse had on Novgorod. Dollinger, 78.
1392 Hansetag declares a cessation of all trade with Scania for a period of three years due to the danger of piracy. Dollinger, 80.
1392 University founded at Erfurt, which would become Hanseatic in 1430. Westholm, 41.
1392 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1392 Pirates plunder Visby. Kinder, 183.
1393 Hansetag held at Lubeck and at Falsterbo.
1394 Vitalin Brothers pirates ravage Bergen. Gade, 98.
1394 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1394 Astrological clock crafted for Stralsund. Lonely Planet, 406.
1395 Hansetag held at Lubeck and at Falsterbo.
1396 Patriciate of Cologne overthrown. Dollinger, 140.
1396 Prussian towns restrict right of residence of English merchants. Postan, 109.
1397 Union of Kalmar brings together the three Scaninavian countries under one crown. Dollinger, 80.
1397 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1398 During 1398-1400, between 200,000 and 300,000 herring were salted in Scania. Gade, 17.
1398 Hansetag held at Lubeck and at Copenhagen.
1398 Prussia officially terminates 1388 treaty with England. Postan, 109.
1398 The ceiling of the Marienkirche in Rostock collapses. Lonely Planet, 386.
1399 Ban on Slav-German buisness partnerships forbidden in Riga. Dollinger, 132.
1399 Patriciate of Dortmund overthrown. Dollinger, 140.
1399 Livonian towns ban credit between Russians and their citizens. Dollinger, 205.
1399 Hansetag held at Lubeck and at Nykoping in Sweden.
1400 Bergen population estimate at 14,000 with 3,000 of them Germans. Gade, 74.
1400 Population estimate for Rostock: 15,000.
Population estimate for Stralsund: 10,000.
Dollinger, 118.
1400 Hansetag held at Lubeck and at Kalmar in Sweden.
1402 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1402 Prussian towns enforce rules against English merchants trading with foreigners or trading in the interior of Prussia. Postan, 109.
1403 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1405 Hansetag held at Lubeck and at Falsterbo in Scania.
1405 Hansetag at Lubeck prohibits trade in English cloth and export of Baltic goods to England. Postan, 109.
1405 English delegation arrives in Prussia to negotiate end to current hostilities. Postan, 109.
1407 Wesel and Duisberg admitted to the Hanse. Dollinger, 124.
1407 Wesel joins the Hanse. Westholm, 75.
1407 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1408 Our Lady s Church (St.Mary s) in Bergen passes to the Germans. Gade, 82.
1408 Overthrow of the patrician regiem in Lubeck between 1408 and 1416. Dollinger, xii.
1408 Treaty between Hanse and England promises English reciprocal rights in Prussia to those enjoyed by Hanse in England. Postan, 111.
1409 Privileges granted to Hanse merchants in Antwerp. Dollinger, 315.
1409 Visby, under the control of Teutonic Knights since 1398, becomes part of Denmark. Kinder, 198.
1410 Defeat of the Teutonic Knights at Tannenberg. Dollinger, xii.
1410 Hansetag held at Hamburg.
1410 English merchants complain that Prussian towns restricted English right to wholesale and to trade with foreigners. Postan, 113.
1412 Hansetag Luneburg bans any operations of Italian financiers as either bankers or merchants in the Hanse towns, though this rule was poorly enforced. Dollinger, 191-192.
1412 Swedish crown raises taxes on Gotland 10 fold, putting an end to the island s prosperity. Westholm, 104.
1412 Hansetag held at Luneberg.
1413 Braken joins the Hanse. Westholm, 66.
1413 Hansetag held at Nyborg.
1414 Danzig reasserts English merchant rights to wholesale, residence, trade with foreigners, etc. Postan, 113.
1416 Patriciate of Danzig overthrown. Dollinger, 140.
1417 Southern German town of Constance refused admission to the Hanse due to being too remotely situated. Dollinger, 89.
1417 Ban on being a citizen of more than one Hanse town at the same time. Dollinger, 200.
1417 Hansetag held at Lubeck and at Rostock.
1417 English year of crop dearth leads to increased imports of Prussian supplies. Postan, 140.
1418 Hansetag declares that only Councillors of the towns are competant to represent their towns. Dollinger, 94.
1418 Lubeck officially recognized at a Hansetag as the head of the Hanse. Dollinger, 107.
1418 Patriciate of Breslau overthrown. Dollinger, 140.
1418 Ban on foreign ownership in any part of a Hanse ship and ban on any Hanse merchant owning part of a foreign ship. Dollinger, 200.
1418 Hansetag in Lubeck: 35 towns as well as representatives from the Emperor, the Teutonic Knights, and the Archbishop of Bremen; the dukes of Schleswig and Mecklenburg attended in person. Dollinger, 289.
1418 Muhlhausen joins the Hanse. Westholm, 50.
1418 Steelyard complains to England that its merchants are being charged certain local taxes from which it considered itself exempt. Postan, 113.
1419 Founding of the University of Rostock. Dollinger, xiii.
1419 Conflict between the Hanse and Castile begins and lasts until 1441. Dollinger, xiii.
1419 Mayor of London refuses to appoint an alderman for the Steelyard, in direct contravention of the Steelyard s charter. Postan, 113.
1420 Hansetag held at Stralsund.
1421 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1422 Lutheranism begins to spread through north Germany. Dollinger, xiii.
1422 Utrecht refused admission to the Hanse due to being too easily controlled by the Dutch. Dollinger, 89.
1422 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1423 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1423 Steelyard addresses petition to new English government to complain about English merchants. Postan, 114.
1424 All Germans in the Novgorod Kontor thrown into prison ; 36 die. Dollinger, 182.
1424 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1425 Hansetag held at Bruges.
1426 War between Hanse and Denmark begins and lasts until 1435. Dollinger, xiii.
1426 Hansetag forbids sale of ships to foreigners. Dollinger, 144.
1426 Wendish towns declare war on Denmark, a war which lasts nine years. Dollinger, 296.
1426 Hameln joins the Hanse. Westholm, 43.
1426 Helmstedt joins the Hanse. Westholm, 45.
1426 Quedlinburg joins the Hanse. Westholm, 55.
1426 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1426 England appoints an alderman for the Steelyard for the first time in seven years. Postan, 115.
1427 Bremen excluded from Hanse. Dollinger, 90.
1427 War between Denmark and the Hanse. Postan, 113.
1428 Bergen sacked by pirates; goods sold in Hamburg. Gade, 100.
1428 Germans leave Bergen after war breaks out between Wendish towns and the Scandinavian kingdom. Gade, 100.
1428 Prussian leadership agrees that English are entitled to a corporate organization in Danzig. Postan, 115.
1428 Hansetag at Lubeck complains that the sale of boats to English and Dutch merchants was creating competition to Hanseatic shipping. Postan, 141.
1429 Bergen sacked by pirates; goods sold in Hamburg. Gade, 100.
1429 Prussian delegation visits England. Postan, 115.
1430 Northeim withdraws from Hanse due to pressure from Saxony lords. Dollinger, 90.
1430 Hansetag establishes fine for cities which do not send delegates to Hansetag meetings. Dollinger, 94.
1430 Erfurt joins the Hanse. Westholm, 41.
1430 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1431 England imposes tunnage and poundage taxes on Hanseatic merchants. Postan, 116.
1433 In December, England issued a temporary, one-year extension of Hanseatic privileges in England. Postan, 116.
1433 Hussite military campaign in Prussia. Kinder, 197.
1434 Hansetag restricts membership of the Hanse to those who were born in Hanse towns. Dollinger, 85.
1434 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1434 Hansetag delegation to Prussia recieves promise to restrict English trade.
1434 Major Hanseatic delegation dispatched to England and led by Henrich Vorrath, the Burgomaster of Danzig. Postan, 116.
1435 Germans return to Bergen after end of war between Wendish towns and Scandinavian kingdom. Gade, 100.
1435 Peace of Vordingborg concludes Hanse-Danish war which had begun in 1426. Dollinger, xiii.
1435 Peace of Vordingborg, a victory for the Hanse, ends a nine year Wendish-Danish war. Dollinger, 296.
1435 Vorrath delegation in England fails to reach agreement with English. Postan, 117.
1435 Southern facade of north wing of Lubeck town hall (Rathaus) completed. Lonely Planet, 867.
1436 Norwegians, led by some noblemen, revolt against Danish rule, which they see as heavily taxing them: 1436-1439. Gade, 101.
1436 Transfer of Kontor from Bruges to Antwerp until 1438. Dollinger, xiii.
1436 80+ Germans massacred in Sluys (Flanders), leading to an immediate move of the Bruges Kontor to Antwerp. Dollinger, 299.
1436 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1436 Eidum, largest town on Sylt island, swallowed by the sea in a severe storm. Lonely Planet, 884.
1437 Hanse-English treaty resolves most outstanding disputes, though it is not ratified by Prussia or Danzig. Postan, 120.
1438 War between the Hanse and the Dutch begins and lasts until 1441. Dollinger, xiii.
1438 Kontor returns to Bruges from Antwerp. Dollinger, xiii.
1438 Famine in Flanders raises the price of corn 400%. Dollinger, 299.
1439 King Christopher of Denmark forced to sign a treaty with Hanse to bring order to his own kingdom. Gade, 102-103.
1439 English merchants in Danzig petition the municipality for their rights under the treaty of 1437. Postan, 124.
1439 English year of crop dearth leads to increased imports of Prussian supplies. Postan, 140.
1440 Average size of a Hanse vessel was one-hundred last. One-hundred last vessels carried 20 men. Gade, 64.
1440 English merchants in Danzig petition High Master of the Teutonic Order for their rights under the treaty of 1437. Postan, 124.
1440 Livonian towns complain of the abundance of English cloth in Novgorod and Livonia, which must have come via Danzig. Postan, 124.
1441 Conflict between Castile and Hanse concludes. Dollinger, xiii.
1441 War between Dutch and Hanse concluded by the Peace of Copenhagen. Dollinger, xiii.
1441 Town of Arnhem granted Hanse membership after 61 year application. Dollinger, 89.
1441 Kamped admitted to the Hanse. Dollinger, 123.
1441 Roermnond on the Meuse admitted to the Hanse. Dollinger, 124.
1441 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1441 English merchants petition English King and Parliament to pressure Prussia to recognize rights granted under treaty of 1437. Postan, 124.
1442 Dorpat, Revel, and to a lesser extent the other Livonian towns, take controlling interests in the Novgorod Kontor. Dollinger, 100.
1442 Hansetag held at Stralsund.
1442 English merchants petition English Parliament to pressure Prussia to recognize rights granted under treaty of 1437. Postan, 124.
1442 England issues ultimatum threatening the annulment of Hanseatic privileges in England if Prussia did not recognize the treaty of 1437. Postan, 126.
1445 All privileges of Hanse renewed. Gade, 103.
1446 Lubeck, Wismar, and Rostock declared staples for Bergen cod. Dollinger, 298.
1447 Visby maritime code codified. Gade, 11.
1447 Hansetag at Lubeck (with 38 towns) empowers the Bruges Kontor s staple by subjecting many commodities to staple rules for the first time. Dollinger, 300.
1447 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1447 Prussian delegation in England, though English refuse to meet. Postan, 127.
1449 In May, England siezes 110 ships, 50 of the Hanse, in the Channel, leading to a confiscation of all English-owned goods in the Hanse towns. Dollinger, 303; Postan, 127.
1449 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1449 English-Hanseatic conference takes place in Lubeck in March. Postan, 127.
1450 Hansetag held at Lubeck and at Bremen.
1450 Lubeck captures English ambassadors en route to Prussia in July, putting the ambassadors under arrest. Postan, 130.
1450 Construction completed of Friedlander Gate of Neubrandenburg s town wall. Lonely Planet, 401.
1451 Last embargo against Flanders begins and lasts until 1457. Dollinger, xiii.
1451 Utrecht refused admission to the Hanse due to being too easily controlled by the Dutch. Dollinger, 89.
1451 Lubeck refuses to meet with English delegation in Utrecht. Postan, 130.
1452 Berlin withdraws from Hanse. Dollinger, 90.
1452 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1452 Lubeck refuses to attend conference that the English were trying to organize. Postan, 130.
1453 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1453 Lubeck refuses to attend conference that the English were trying to organize. Postan, 130.
1454 Munster excluded from Hanse. Dollinger, 90.
1454 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1454 Lubeck refuses to attend conference that the English were trying to organize. Postan, 130.
1456 University founded at Griefswald. Westholm, 69.
1456 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1456 Eight-year truce proclaimed between Hanse and England. Postan, 131.
1457 1451 embargo against Flanders comes to an end. Dollinger, xiii.
1457 Hansetag orders 30 towns to pay a fine for not showing up to Hansetag meetings. Dollinger, 94.
1458 Second capture of the Bay fleet by English under the Earl of Warwick leads to great loss of Hanseatic merchandise. Postan, 130.
1459 Riga stops all foreigners, in this case including Hanse citizens, from trading directly with other foreigners in the territory of Riga. Dollinger, 294.
1461 Schwerte joins the Hanse. Westholm, 73.
1461 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1461 Temporary extension of Hanseatic privileges in England. Postan, 132.
1462 Steelyard calls for suppression of credit finance. Dollinger, 206.
1463 Temporary extension of Hanseatic privileges in England. Postan, 132.
1464 Printing press established in Cologne. Dollinger, 266.
1464 Hanse receives a charter to trade throughout France on condition that they do not trade with England. Dollinger, 305.
1464 Two-towered Lubeck city gate erected. Lonely Planet, 866.
1465 Hansetag held at Hamburg.
1465 Temporary extension of Hanseatic privileges in England. Postan, 132.
1467 Lubeck indicates to other Hanse towns that it is willing to agree to a negotiation with England. Postan, 132.
1468 Hanse buys house in Antwerp. Dollinger, 315.
1468 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1468 In June, Danish seize and English fleet in the Sound, for which England blames the Hanse despite Danish claims of responsibility. Postan, 133.
1468 England confiscates Hanseatic goods in England and restricts trade, though not those and that of Cologne. Postan, 134.
1468 War between England and Hanse begins, lasting until 1473. Postan, 134-135.
1469 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1470 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1471 Prussians complain, in context of 1468-1474 English-Hanse war, that an embargo of English cloth is impossible to enforce. Postan, 135.
1471 Cologne excluded from the Hanse. Dollinger, xiii.
1471 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1472 Unofficial negotiations between England and Hanse begin in Bruges. Postan, 136.
1472 Astrological clock begins operation in Rostock. Lonely Planet, 386.
1474 1470 war between Hanse and England comes to an end by the Peace of Utrecht, which confirms German ownership of Steelyard. Dollinger, 309.
1474 Steelyard obtains recognition of its control over German operations in Boston. Dollinger, 106.
1474 Breslau withdraws from the Hanse. Dollinger, 127.
1475 Town of Neuss admitted to Hanse by imperial decree. Dollinger, 89.
1475 Printing press established in Lubeck. Dollinger, 266.
1475 Hanse merchants receive guildhall at King s Lynn in England. Westholm, 95.
1476 Printing press established in Rostock. Dollinger, 266.
1476 Cologne readmitted to the Hanse with heavy fines. Dollinger, 309.
1476 Hansetag held at Bremen.
1477 University founded in Uppsala. Kinder, 180.
1478 Ivan III of Russia annexes Novgorod. Dollinger, 284.
1478 University founded at Copenhagen. Kinder, 180.
1479 Halle withdraws from Hanse. Dollinger, 90.
1480 Printing press established in Magdeburg. Dollinger, 266.
1483 Perpetual peace agreed between France and Hanse. Dollinger, xiii.
1484 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1487 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1487 Construction completed on Nikolaikirche in Wismar. Lonely Planet, 392.
1491 Printing press established in Hamburg. Dollinger, 266.
1491 Hansetag held at Lubeck and at Antwerp.
1494 Livonian cities take over operation of Novgorod Kontor. Gade, 72.
1494 Ivan III closes the Novgorod Kontor. Dollinger, xiii.
1494 Hansetag decides that only the leading towns could determine who was and was not Hanse. Dollinger, 89-90.
1494 Hansetag held at Bremen.
1497 No English ships pass through the Sound. Postan, 138.
1498 Printing press established in Danzig. Dollinger, 266.
1498 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1499 Hansetag held at Bruges.
1501 Duke of Burgundy decrees that Hollanders, Frieslanders, and Zealanders are exempt from the Hanseatic staple in Flanders. Winter, 281.
1502 In Battle of Lake Smolina, Teutonic Knights repel Russians. Kinder, 249.
1503 Twenty-one English ships pass through the Sound. Postan, 138.
1506 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1506 University founded at Frankfurt an der Oder. Kinder, 180.
1507 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1508 Treaty reinscribes Hanseatic privileges in Antwerp. Winter, 281.
1510 Lübeck threatens to seize Dutch vessels trading with the Baltic. Winter, 284.
1511 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1511 Hanse complains of infringements of treaty privileges in Antwerp. Winter, 281
1514 Hanse complains of infringements of treaty privileges in Antwerp. Winter 281.
1517 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1517 Martin Luther posts his 95 Theses, sparking the Protestant Reformation. Kinder, 231.
1518 Salzwedel leaves the Hanse. Westholm, 56.
1518 Berlin-Colln withdraws from the Hanse. Westholm, 66.
1518 Brandenburg withdraws from the Hanse. Westholm, 66.
1518 Frankfurt/Oder withdraws from Hanse. Westholm, 68.
1518 Stendal withdraws from the Hanse. Westholm, 74.
1518 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1520 Bruges Kontor permanently relocated to Antwerp. Dollinger, 315.
1520 Hansetag held at Stralsund.
1521 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1523 Germans in Bergen sieze documents from the town hall and attack rival merchants (many of Scottish descent) in their homes. Oye, 27.
1523 Hansetag held at Stralsund.
1525 Hansetag Lubeck draws up instructions for Hanse towns to pass measures against supporters of Luther, but only Hamburg, Rostock, and Luneberg actually act on those instructions. Dollinger, 320.
1525 Secularization of the Teutonic Knights. Dollinger, 321.
1525 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1525 The Great Peasant War is constituted by peasant uprisings in eastern-central Germany, just south of Hanseatic regions. Kinder, 232-233.
1526 Burgomaster in Danzig organized the deposition of the city Council and re-established Catholicism. Dollinger, 321.
1530 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1533 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1534 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1535 Hansetag held at Lubeck and at Luneburg.
1539 Antwerp Kontor reduced in size to three aldermen. Dollinger, 315.
1540 Discussion at the Hansetag of discontinuing the brutal Bergen games. Gade, 78.
1540 Einbeck destroyed by fire. Westholm, 40.
1540 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1544 Denmark-Norway obtained peace and conciliation from Charles V of HRE, allowing them to support an anti-Lubeck policy in Bergen. Gade, 118.
1544 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1544 Dukes of Gottorf select Schleswig as their residence. Lonely Planet, 873.
1547 English and Dutch shipping to the Baltic roughly equivalent in number of ships. Postan, 138.
1549 Letter from Bergen Kontor defends the brutal Bergen games as important to maintaining discipline among the Kontor members. Gade, 78.
1549 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1553 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1554 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1555 Kampen withdraws from the Hanse. Westholm, 81.
1556 Hansetag creates position of Syndic of the Hanse, its first official leader. Dollinger, 334.
1556 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1557 Hansetag draws up a constitution for the Hanse to which Lubeck, Danzig, Brunswick, and Cologne affixed their seals. Dollinger, 332.
1557 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1558 Ivan IV captures Narva and Dorpat. Dollinger, xiv.
1558 Riga occupied by Russia. Westholm, 119.
1558 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1559 Rights of German artisans in Bergen restricted; about one-third returned to Germany. Oye, 36.
1560 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1562 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1563 Bremen excluded from Hanse. Dollinger, 119.
1563 Bremen excluded from the Hanse for being Calvinist. Dollinger, 321.
1565 Sweden siezes 32 Lubeck ships returning from Narva. Dollinger, 338.
1566 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1567 Hamburg grants privileges to English Merchant Adventurers. Dollinger, xiv.
1567 Ten-year agreement lets the English establish in Hamburg. Dollinger, 341.
1567 Brakel withdraws from the Hanse. Westholm, 66.
1567 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1568 Construction of Hanse s house at Antwerp finished. Dollinger, xiv.
1569 Lubeck fleet attacks then-Swedish Reval, burning or capturing 100 ships. Dollinger, 338.
1572 Hameln leaves the Hanse. Westholm, 43.
1572 Gottingen withdraws from the Hanse. Westholm, 68.
1572 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1575 Hanse company of Spanienfahrer created. Dollinger, 360.
1576 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1577 Bremen readmitted, after 14 years of exclusion, to the Hanse. Dollinger, 321.
1577 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1579 Elbing grants Engliand privilieges. Dollinger, 342.
1579 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1580 Hansetag held at Luneburg
1581 Swedish forces occupy Narva. Dollinger, 338.
1581 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1584 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1585 Bruges Kontor officially closed, though in practice it had been operating only in Antwerp for 65 years. Westholm, 90.
1591 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1592 Sweden and Poland briefly (until 1598) united as single country. Kinder, 249.
1595 Flensburg town gate erected. Lonely Planet, 878.
1597 Emden applies for Hanse membership but is denied. Dollinger, 336.
1597 HRE Rudolf II, probably at the instigation of Spain, orders an imperial ban on the English Merchant Adventuers. Dollinger, 343.
1598 Elizabeth I closes the London Steelyard. Dollinger, xiv.
1598 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1599 King Christian IV of Norway observes brutal Bergen games and is heartily amused. Gade, 78-79.
1599 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1600 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1601 Stade excluded from the Hanse. Dollinger, xiv.
1601 Stade excluded from the Hanse for having granted privileges to the English. Dollinger, 336.
1601 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1602 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1603 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1603 Husum granted official municipal rights (i.e. township). Lonely Planet, 880.
1605 Number of aldermen at Bergen Kontor reduced to one. Oye, 25.
1605 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1606 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1607 Hanseatic embassy sent to Spain. Dollinger, xiv.
1607 Demmin withdraws from the Hanse. Westholm, 67.
1608 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1609 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1611 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1612 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1615 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1616 Alliance between United Provinces and Hanse against Denmark. Dollinger, xiv.
1617 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1617 In Peace of Stolbovo, Russia lost access to the Baltic Sea. Kinder, 249.
1618 Hamburg obtains recognition as a free imperial city. Dollinger, 363.
1618 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1619 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1621 Sweden captures Riga and the Livonian territories from Poland. Dollinger, xiv; Kinder, 249.
1621 Hostilities break out between Spain and the Dutch, with the Hanse siding with Spain. Dollinger, 351.
1621 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1622 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1628 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1629 Hansetag asks Bremen, Hamburg, and Lubeck to assume responsibility for the common interests of the Hanse and to act in those interests. Dollinger, 365.
1630 Closer alliance between Lubeck, Bremen, and Hamburg largely supplants the Hanse. Dollinger, xix.
1630 Hamburg, Bremen, and Lubeck agree to ten-year mutual defense treaty. Dollinger, 365.
1640 Altona (outside of Hamburg) becomes part of Denmark. Lonely Planet, 842.
1645 Stade conquered by Sweden. Westholm, 58.
1648 Treaty of Westphalia ends Thirty Years War and gives Stralsund and Wismar to Sweden. Westholm, 59, 64.
1648 Entire town of Uelzen razed by fire. Westholm, 74.
1655 Hanse receives a beneficial trade agreement with France. Dollinger, 366.
1659 Most of Stade destroyed by fire. Lonely Planet, 856.
1666 Steelyard destroyed by fire. Dollinger, 367.
1669 Last Hansetag held at Lubeck dissolves the Hanse. Dollinger, xv.
1669 Hansetag held at Lubeck.
1677 Great fire ravages Rostock. Westholm, 73.
1703 St. Pauli Fish Market is institutionalized in Hamburg. Lonely Planet, 841.
1766 Our Lady s Church (St.Mary s) in Bergen passes out of the Germans ownership. Gade, 82.
1766 Bergen Kontor properties appropriated by the Norwegian crown. Dollinger, 369.
1814 Denmark and Norway are seperated into two countries. Gade, 96.
1815 Stralsund and Wismar become part of Prussia, having been Swedish since 1648. Lonely Planet, 405.
1853 Steelyard properties sold by Hamburg, Bremen, and Lubeck. Dollinger, 369.
1862 Hamburg, Bremen, and Lubeck sell Hanse s house at Antwerp. Dollinger, 369.
1867 Altona (outside of Hamburg) becomes part of Prussia. Lonely Planet, 842.
1870 Our Lady s Church (St.Mary s) in Bergen ceases to preach sermons in German. Gade, 82.
1937 Lubeck loses its status as a free imperial city. Lonely Planet, 864.
1937 Altona becomes part of Hamburg. Lonely Planet, 842.
1980 Salt production in Luneberg ceases. Westholm, 49.